Please contact the author at danielkayhertz at gmail dot com with any questions!

Secondary Written Sources

Barrett, Paul. The Automobile and Urban Transit: The Formation of Public Policy in Chicago, 1900-1930. Temple University Press, 1983.

Baugher, Shirley. At Home in Our Old Town: Every House Has a Story. Old Town Triangle Association, 2005.

Baugher, Shirley. Our Old Town: The history of a neighborhood. Old Town Triangle Association, 2001.

Bronte, Patricia. Vittles and Vice. Henry Regnery Company, 1952.

Cohen, Adam, and Taylor, Elizabeth. American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley – His Battle for Chicago and the Nation. Back Bay Books, 2000.

Condit, Carl. Chicago: 1930-1970. University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Fernández, Lilia. Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago. University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Fidel, Kenneth. “Gentrification, Revitalization and Social Transformation in Lincoln Park: A Socio-Demographic Analysis.” Part of the Lincoln Park Study Group. Accessed at DePaul University Special Collections, Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection.

Garb, Margaret. City of American Dreams: A History of Home Ownership and Housing Reform in Chicago, 1871-1919. University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Gonzales, Michael Robert. “Ruffians and Revolutionaries: the Development of the Young Lords Organization in Chicago.” Masters thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2015.

Heap, Chad. Slumming: Sexual and Racial Encounters in American Nightlife, 1885-1940. University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Hirsch, Arnold. Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960. University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Hunt, Bradford, and DeVries, Jon. Planning Chicago. Routledge, 2013.

Jackson, Kenneth. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. Oxford University Press, 1985.

Ley, David. The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City. Oxford University Press, 1996.

Marciniak, Ed. Reclaiming the Inner City: Chicago’s Near North Revitalization Confronts Cabrini-Green. Institute of Urban Life, 1986.

Mayer, Harold, and Wade, Richard. Chicago: Growth of a Metropolis. University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Meister, Richard. “The History of Lincoln Park.” Part of the Lincoln Park Study Group. Accessed at DePaul University Special Collections, Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection.

Old Town Triangle Historic District Committee. “Old Town Triangle Historic District – National Register Nomination.” 1977.

Paolini, A. Rod. “Lincoln Park Conservation Association: The Politics of a Community Organization.” Masters thesis, Northwestern University, 1970.

Rieger, Howard. “Redeveloping Chicago’s Lincoln Park Area.” PhD dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 1969.

Schwieterman, Joseph, and Caspall, Dana. The Politics of Place: A History of Zoning in Chicago. Lake Claremont Press, 2006.

Taub, Richard. “Paths of Neighborhood Change” (excerpts). Part of the Lincoln Park Study Group. Accessed at DePaul University Special Collections, Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection.

Thurner, Arthur. “Some Notes in the Form of a Narrative Toward a Reconstruction of the Political History of Lincoln park, 1853-1971.” Part of the Lincoln Park Study Group. Accessed at DePaul University Special Collections, Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection.

Vale, Lawrence. Purging the Poorest: Public Housing and the Design Politics of Twice-Cleared Communities. University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Warner, Margaret. “The Renovation of Lincoln Park: An Ecological Study of Neighborhood Change.” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 1979.

Waters, William, with Forkert, Maurice. “The Changing Economy of Lincoln Park After World War II to 1980.” Part of the Lincoln Park Study Group. Accessed at DePaul University Special Collections, Lincoln Park Neighborhood Collection.

Zorbaugh, Harvey. The Gold Coast and the Slum: A Sociological Study of Chicago’s Near North Side. University of Chicago Press, 1929.


Magazine and Feature Articles

Reed, Earl Jr. “Edgar Miller, Designer-Craftsman.” Architecture, August 1932.

Cass, Judith. “Crilly Court’s Residents Turn Vacant Lot Into War Gardens.” Chicago Tribune, June 4, 1942.

Ford, Ann. “Artist Colony Forms One Big Happy Family.” Chicago Tribune, November 15, 1942.

Leimert, Virginia. “Chicagoans Restoring Old Charm and Grace to Landmark Homes on North Side: ‘Pioneers’ Reviving Picturesque Area.” Chicago Daily News, June 4, 1947.

Chase, Al. “Years Bring New Charm to Old Area: Crilly Pioneer in His Field.” Chicago Tribune, January 2, 1949.

Lyon, Marge. “There Are No ‘Squares’ In Old Town’s Triangle.” Chicago Tribune, November 23, 1952.

Browning, Norma Lee. “Let’s Tour Old Town: It’s an Artists’ Colony, a Garden Spot, a Friendly village in the Heart of Bustling Chicago.” Chicago Tribune, December 1, 1957.

Leonard, William. “Chicago’s New ‘Left Bank’: Today’s Beatniks Howl in Precincts Once Famed as Sites of Dill Pickle Club and Bughouse Square.” Chicago Tribune, November 23, 1958.

Linn, James. “Restore Lincoln Park Area: Citizens’ Groups, Urban Renewal Stem Deterioration.” Chicago Tribune, November 2, 1967.

Amazaki, Barbara. “Citizens Form Group to Coordinate Fight Against Construction.” Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1968.

Shojai, Carolyn. “Residents, City Combine Forces to Rejuvenate Lincoln Park Area.” Chicago Tribune, September 21, 1969.

Cross, Robert. “Bignoise from Lincoln Park.” Chicago Tribune, November 2, 1969.

Cross, Robert. “The Tardy Bell is Ringing at Waller High: Lincoln Park, It Tolls for Thee.” Chicago Tribune, April 17, 1970.

Dunham, Wayne. “Walpole Point: A successful experiment, but now what?” Chicago Tribune, May 10, 1975.

“The Legacy of Sol Kogan.” Chicago Rehabber, Fall 1979.


Newspaper Articles

Matsoukas, Nick. “The Kogen-Miller Studios.” Current Architecture, December 1930.

Cass, Judith. “52 Debutantes Listed; Others May Be Added.” Chicago Tribune, August 29, 1938.

“The Inquiring Reporter.” Chicago Tribune, September 13, 1939.

Cass, Judith. “Eleanor Rogers, Loren Massey Wed Saturday.” Chicago Tribune, November 18, 1940.

Cass, Judith. “Miss Courtney Stillwell to be Wed in March.” Chicago Tribune, February 18, 1941.

Cass, Judith. “Debutante New Fleet Captain of Yacht Club.” Chicago Tribune, September 4, 1942.

Cass, Judith. “October Finds Suburbanites Moving Back to Homes in City.” Chicago Tribune, October 1, 1942.

Cass, Judith. “Badminton Interest Revived; Local Tournaments Planned.” Chicago Tribune, February 1, 1946.

“4 Boys’ Clubs to Hold Dance on Friday Night: Proceeds Will Help Pay Cost of Centers.” Chicago Tribune, May 4, 1947.

“Seek Sponsors of Menomonee Boys’ Program: $500 Pledged by Adult Members.” Chicago Tribune, July 6, 1947.

Weigle, Edith. “Discriminating Taste in Choice of Furnishings and Color Schemes Gives Home Distinction.” Chicago Tribune, July 17, 1948.

Cass, Judith. “Junior League Follies Continues as Topic of Conversation at Parties.” Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1948.

Cass, Judith. “Tenants Keep Postman Busy with Changes.” Chicago Tribune, August 13, 1952.

Powers, Irene. “It’s a Gay and Varied Life for One of Old Town’s First Families.” Chicago Tribune, July 12, 1953.

Rannells, Elizabeth. “Chicago’s Sleepy ‘Old Town’ Awakens.” Chicago Tribune, May 30, 1954.

Flavin, Genevieve. “Restore Glory of Old Houses in Lincoln Pk.: Styles of Steamboat Era Prevail.” Chicago Tribune, January 16, 1955.

“Lincoln Park Area Zoning Plan Offered: Conservation Unit Seeks Amendment Changes.” Chicago Tribune, May 17, 1956.

Powers, Irene. “Fresh White Tracks Lure Art Visitors to Old Town.” Chicago Tribune, June 15, 1957.

“41 to Discuss Neighborhood Improvement.” Chicago Tribune, September 12, 1957.

“Fear Cutback in One Project: Civic Group Opposes Reduction.” Chicago Tribune, February 28, 1960.

“Revised Plan for Renewal Agreed Upon: Scrap Lincoln Pk. Project.” Chicago Tribune, March 17, 1960.

“Report Gives Push to Plan of Renewal: Near North Unit Girds for Action.” Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1960.

“Private Funds Start Lincoln Park Renewal: Ask Federal Aid for Area-Wide Study.” Chicago Tribune, June 16, 1960.

Avery, Suzanne. “‘Future’s Bright’ Proclaims CCB in New Report.” Chicago Tribune, August 14, 1960.

“Calls for Improving Lincoln Park Area.” Chicago Tribune, January 29, 1961.

“Tavern Plea Raises Storm in Old Town.” Chicago Tribune, June 18, 1961.

Avery, Suzanne. “Cleveland Avenue Building is Key to Plan: Reveals Factors in Lincoln Pk. Success.” Chicago Tribune, August 31, 1961.

Bing, Edward. “Civic Groups Hit Request by Landlord, Zone Board Gets Protests.” Chicago Tribune, October 15, 1961.

“Renewal Plan on Agenda of City Council.” Chicago Tribune, May 31, 1962.

“Tell Proposed Lincoln Park Improvements.” Chicago Tribune, December 27, 1962.

“Lincoln Park Renewal Unit Spurs Action: Processes 350 Cases During Year.” Chicago Tribune, February 17, 1963.

“Lincoln Park Area Project to be Aired: Officials to Ponder Use of Funds.” Chicago Tribune, April 4, 1963.

“Lincoln Park Group Prints ‘Building Code.'” Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1963.

“Request Ogden Avenue Closing: Lincoln Pk. Unit Tells Plan.” Chicago Tribune, June 30, 1963.

“Neighborhood Group Backs Region Plan.” Chicago Tribune, August 25, 1963.

“4 Pastors Tell of Dixie Jailing.” Chicago Tribune, October 28, 1963.

“Lincoln Park Group Beginning 10th Year.” Chicago Tribune, February 2, 1964.

Hawkins, Robert. “Lincoln Park Area Plan Told: Local Units Join Renewal Dept. in Proposal.” Chicago Tribune, February 23, 1964.

Handley, John. “Recommendations Approved: Lincoln Park Plan Moves Step Closer.” Chicago Tribune, April 23, 1964.

Negronida, Peter. “Renewal Area Residents Still Fight Park Plans.” Chicago Tribune, August 16, 1964.

“Post-Fire Houses, Elegantly Rekindled, Will Be Shown on Tours to Display Progress.” Chicago Tribune, September 10, 1964.

“Studies Ogden Av. Plan.” Chicago Tribune, December 6, 1964.

“Neighbors Rap Plan of Front Fire Escape: 55 Protest, Fear Loss in Property Value.” Chicago Tribune, December 13, 1964.

“2 Groups Rap City Plan for New School: Both Seek Expansion of Waller Facilities.” Chicago Tribune, December 20, 1964.

“Shelve Talk on Proposed High School.” Chicago Tribune, January 31, 1965.

“Smith is Housekeeper for City’s 700,000 Buildings, 1.2 Million Units.” Chicago Tribune, March 11, 1965.

Brundage, Slim. “Is It True What They Say About Wells Street?” Chicago Tribune, March 21, 1965.

“Renewal Program Reflects City’s Diversity.” Chicago Tribune, April 11, 1965.

“Government OK’s Project: Lincoln Park Plan Lauded, 10 Millions Earmarked for Area, Leaders Await Final Approval.” Chicago Tribune, June 13, 1965.

“Sheffield Group Inspires Owners.” Chicago Tribune, August 1, 1965.

“Spanish Americans Form Civic Group.” Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1965.

“‘Top Priority’ for Waller Addition Urged by Conservation Association.” Chicago Tribune, March 27, 1966.

“Marking Start of Demolition.” Chicago Tribune, April 7, 1966.

Taylor, Lynn. “Tells Urban Renewal Plans: Lincoln Park Group Asks Boundary Changes for 2d Phase of Project.” Chicago Tribune, July 28, 1966.

“Skyscraper Zone Voted in Old Town.” Chicago Tribune, August 20, 1966.

Taylor, Lynn. “Renewal Priority Plan Told: Lincoln Park Association Drops Housing Provision.” Chicago Tribune, September 29, 1966.

“‘Adequate’ Housing Is Part of Renewal Plan: LPCA Chief.” Chicago Tribune, October 6, 1966.

“Residents’ Group Asks ‘Priority’ for Low-Cost Housing.” Chicago Tribune, October 13, 1966.

“Priority Issue Continues in Lincoln Park Area Plan.” Chicago Tribune, October 27, 1966.

Kilian, Michael. “Calls for Waller Addition: Board Member Says White Students Leaving.” Chicago Tribune, November 10, 1966.

“Pickets to Support Lincoln Park Plan for New Housing.” Chicago Tribune, November 17, 1966.

Taylor, Lynn. “Calls for Low-Cost Housing: Lincoln Park Unit Asks Hill to Amend Plans for Renewal.” Chicago Tribune, December 22, 1966.

Kilian, Michael. “Battle for Classrooms Ends: Lincoln Park Wins Addition to Waller.” Chicago Tribune, January 12, 1967.

“Housing Executive Named Director of Lincoln Park Unit.” Chicago Tribune, January 19, 1967.

“Lincoln Park Area Construction Zooms.” Chicago Tribune, January 19, 1967.

Schreiber, Edward. “2 in Lead for Paddy Bauler’s Seat: Candidates Race for 43d Seat.” Chicago Tribune, February 12, 1967.

Elmer, John. “McCutcheon Finds Council Race as Tiring as Teaching of Math.” Chicago Tribune, February 19, 1967.

“Lincoln Park Conservation Association Gets Advice on Renewal Problems.” Chicago Tribune, March 2, 1967.

Getz, Anne. “Plan Less Razing in City Renewal.” Chicago Tribune, March 5, 1967.

Taylor, Lynn. “Seek Halt to Lincoln Park Renewal.” Chicago Tribune, April 23, 1967.

Amazaki, Barbara. “Renewal Change Urged: Lincoln Pk. Group Sets Hearings.” Linn, James. “Restore Lincoln Park Area: Citizens’ Groups, Urban Renewal Stem Deterioration.” Chicago Tribune, November 2, 1967. January 14, 1968.

Amazaki, Barbara. “Decision Expected on Lincoln Pk. Plan.” Chicago Tribune, February 4, 1968.

Darrow, Joy. “High-Rise Plan Stirs Debate on Old Town Philosophies. Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1968.

Amazaki, Barbara. “Two Broad Objectives: Housing Study Completed.” Chicago Tribune, June 16, 1968.

Amazaki, Barbara. “DUR May Alter Project I Housing Plan.” Chicago Tribune, July 25, 1968.

“Group to Promote More Open Housing.” Chicago Tribune, August 11, 1968.

Thompson, David. “City Plans to Build Homes, Townhomes.” Chicago Tribune, August 18, 1968.

Amazaki, Barbara. “Suggestions Sought for Tighter Zoning.” Chicago Tribune, September 22, 1968.

Walker, Arthur. “Group OK’s Low-Cost Building but is Wary of Prefabs’ Design.” Chicago Tribune, January 9, 1969.

Dunlap, William. “Urge Changes in Waller Magnet School Plan.” Chicago Tribune, March 13, 1969.

Adams, Carol. “Building 100 Years Old; Owner Struggles to Save Pub.” Chicago Tribune, April 17, 1969.

“Work on ‘4 plus 1’ Apartment Snagged by City Building Code.” Chicago Tribune, April 27, 1969.

Shojai, Carolyn. “Construction Set for Ogden Mall.” Chicago Tribune, April 27, 1969.

Shojai, Carolyn. “Threats, Shouts at Lincoln Park Council Meeting.” Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1969.

“Group in Lincoln Park to Finish Study on Housing.” Chicago Tribune, June 5, 1969.

Adams, Carol. “‘4 Plus 1’ Revisions Studied.” Chicago Tribune, June 5, 1969.

“Gang Leader Denies a Mob Action Charge.” Chicago Tribune, June 21, 1969.

Shojai, Carolyn. “Lincoln Park Council Disruptions Hit.” Chicago Tribune, June 22, 1969.

“Delays Land Sale at Armitage, Halsted.” Chicago Tribune, July 13, 1969.

“Lincoln Park Council to Hear Renewal Plan.” Chicago Tribune, July 27, 1969.

Shojai, Carolyn. “Gangs Disrupt Lincoln Park Unit’s Meeting: Start 1 Hour Melee, Protest Housing.” Chicago Tribune, July 30, 1969.

“Lincoln Park Unit Considers Charges Against Disrupters.” Chicago Tribune, July 31, 1969.

“Lincoln Park Council Urges Action on Takeover of Meeting.” Chicago Tribune, August 10, 1969.

“City OK’s Use of Park Until Ruling Is Made.” Chicago Tribune, August 12, 1969.

“Governor Signs Zone Revisions Boosted by Lincoln Park Group.” Chicago Tribune, August 24, 1969.

“Oppose Construction of Building with No Off-Street Parking.” Chicago Tribune, August 24, 1969.

Shojai, Carolyn. “Lincoln Park Conservation Group Seeks Unity After July Disruption.” Chicago Tribune, September 7, 1969.

“Lincoln Park Group Gets New Leader.” Chicago Tribune, September 19, 1969.

Philbrick, Richard. “Friends Recall Slain Cleric as ‘Great Guy.'” Chicago Tribune, September 29, 1969.

Banas, Casey. “N. Side Cleric, Wife Slain.” Chicago Tribune, September 30, 1969.

Boyer, Brian. “Minister helped oppressed.” Chicago Sun-Times, September 30, 1969.

Casey, James. “Young Lincoln Park pastor, wife found stabbed to death at home.” Chicago Sun-Times, September 30, 1969. In DePaul Special Collections.

Powers, Ron. “How friends, neighbors feel about the killings.” Chicago Sun-Times, September 30, 1969. In DePaul Special Collections.

Butler, Patrick. “Plea for calm, unity.” Lerner Booster, October 1, 1969.

Dunlop, Betsy. “Armitage church’s pastor, his wife stabbed to death.” Lerner Booster, October 1, 1969. In DePaul Special Collections.

O’Brien, John. “Clews Fading in Murder of Cleric, Wife.” Chicago Tribune, October 1, 1969.

Svejcara, Robert. “‘Their People’ Honor Slain Pastor, Wife.” Chicago Tribune, October 2, 1969.

Blasker, Larry. “No leads found in slaying.” Lerner Booster, October 5, 1969. In DePaul Special Collections.

Flaherty, Roger. “‘Man of feeling’: Slain LP minister inspired some, angered others by unorthodox ways.” Lerner Booster, October 5, 1969. In DePaul Special Collections.

“Lyle Mayer Resigns as Chairman of Lincoln Park Conservation.” Chicago Tribune, November 9, 1969.

Shiflett, James. “Letters: Preserving Lincoln Park.” Chicago Tribune, December 14, 1969.

“Lincoln Park Community Council Chairman Calls Housing Biggest Need.” Chicago Tribune, December 14, 1969.

Dunham, Wayne. “DUR Delays Bid on Land Development.” Chicago Tribune, February 1, 1970.

“Past Policies Indorsed in Lincoln Park Vote.” Chicago Tribune, February 1, 1970.

Buck, Thomas. “Lincoln Park Groups Debate Coalition Bid.” Chicago Tribune, February 11, 1970.

“O.K. Hartford Housing Bid: ‘Reconsider Our Plan,’ Poor Coalition Pleads.” Chicago Tribune, June 14, 1970.

Sneed, Michael. “Lack of Housing Hurts Schools in Renewal Areas.” Chicago Tribune, June 28, 1970.

“New Housing Plan Presented for Lincoln Pk.” Chicago Tribune, July 16, 1970.

Freeburg, Russell. “Church ‘Influence’ on New Left Told.” Chicago Tribune, December 30, 1970.

“North Side Ministry Admits Some Aid Went to Street Gangs.” Chicago Tribune, January 1, 1971.

Nagelberg, Alvin. “Apartment Boom Hits Lincoln Park.” Chicago Tribune, February 14, 1971.

Schultz, Terri. “‘Jiving’ Parish Hangs On.” Chicago Tribune, April 18, 1971.

Robinson, James. “Methodists to appoint woman.” Chicago Tribune, May 2, 1975.

Young, David. “Jimenez runs for alderman.” Chicago Tribune, June 21, 1974.

Artner, Alan. “Back in town: Edgar Miller, Design Pioneer.” Chicago Tribune, July 2, 1978.



Alan, Howard. Interviewed by José Jiménez for Grand Valley State University’s Young Lords in Lincoln Park collection, August 22, 2012.

Bleicher, Zac. Interviewed by the author May 30, 2017.

Devine, Pat. Interviewed by José Jiménez for Grand Valley State University’s Young Lords in Lincoln Park collection, February 10, 2012.

Shadle, Neil. Interviewed by the author over email, April – June 2018.

Shadle, Paul. Interviewed by the author April 11, 2018.

Various people, in nine parts. Interviewed by Studs Terkel and hosted by WFMT at the Studs Terkel Radio Archives, 1969. See


Archival Sources

The Battle of Lincoln Park makes extensive use of the archives of DePaul University’s Special Collections, and especially the Lincoln Park and Latino collections, including but not limited to:

Important sources within these collections include meeting minutes, newsletters, internal and external memos and letters, flyers, and promotional materials, among others.

The “Young Lords in Lincoln Park” collection at Grand Valley State University was also an important source, in particular the recorded interviews with Howard Alan, José “Cha Cha” Jiménez, and Patricia Devine-Reed.